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‘The Way Is (Not) Open’

by Mariya Rasner As usual, Turkmenistan’s political activities in 1999 saw President Saparmurat Niyazov’s efforts to maintain authoritarian control over the country. The government continued to disregard international criticism over human-rights abuses and preserved its pragmatic stance in issues concerning security in Central Asia and the status of the Caspian Sea. Economically, the country made […]