by Lowell Bezanis For the past decade, Turkmenistan’s destiny has been shaped by one man – Saparmurad Niyazov, also known as Turkmenbasi, or ‘chief of the Turkmen’ – with the result that the country has made only minimal progress toward democratization BORN IN 1940 IN THE REPublic’s capital, Ashgabat, Saparmurad Niyazov worked his way up […]

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