Referenda have been instrumental in establishing new states and policies in the countries of the former USSR and Soviet bloc. They have also acted to destabilize that same process. You have reached a premium content area of TOL. To read this entire article please login if you are already a TOL subscriber. Not a subscriber? Annual membership costs only $55 per year for individuals ($33 for students) and organizational subscriptions start at $141 per year. Subscribe today for access to: Full access to the website, including premium articles videos, country reports and searchable archives (containing over 25,000 articles). You can subscribe here to gain access to the entire website.