IN THE MONTHS LEADING UP TO THE CHECHEN invasion, there were abundant warning signals that Russia's army remained a ragtag conglomeration of units still reeling from the wrenching upheavals of the preceding five years. Russia's ground forces, an important component of any large-scale military operation in the Caucasus, continued to experience severe problems, including staff levels that remained stuck at about 50 percent, dismal re-enlistment rates among younger officers, and an aging and increasingly decrepit infrastructure.
You have reached a premium content area of TOL. To read this entire article please login if you are already a TOL subscriber.
Not a subscriber?
Annual membership costs only $55 per year for individuals ($33 for students) and organizational subscriptions start at $134 per year.
Subscribe today for access to:
Full access to the website, including premium articles videos, country reports and searchable archives (containing over 22,000 articles).
You can subscribe here to gain access to the entire website.