11 August 1995 FOR THE PAST DECADE, Turkmenistan’s destiny has been shaped by one man – Saparmurad Niyazov – with the result that the country’s evolution remains carefully controlled, if not wholly stymied. Niyazov became first secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1985. He took over from Mukhamednazar Gapurov, […]

You have reached a premium content area of TOL. To read this entire article please login if you are already a TOL subscriber.

Not a subscriber?

Annual membership costs only $55 per year for individuals ($33 for students) and organizational subscriptions start at $141 per year.

Subscribe today for access to:
Full access to the website, including premium articles videos, country reports and searchable archives (containing over 25,000 articles).

You can subscribe here to gain access to the entire website.