by Dr. Roger D. Kangas For Uzbekistan, 1999 was a year in which open challenges to the authority of President Islam Karimov were demonstrated. By year’s end, he was able to maintain his authority and, to an extent, tightened his grip on the reins of power. That said, problems in the economy continued, leaving open […]

You have reached a premium content area of TOL. To read this entire article please login if you are already a TOL subscriber.

Not a subscriber?

Subscribe today for access to:
Full access to the website, including premium articles videos, country reports and searchable archives (containing over 25,000 articles).

You can subscribe here to gain access to the entire website.